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Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4–5 mm in length and 1.5–3 mm wide.
Bed Bugs In Ontario
Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug of any age that has just consumed a blood meal will appear to have a bright red translucent abdomen; this color will fade to brown over the next several hours and within two days will become opaque and black as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles, however when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like, and like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.
Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding and reproduction.
The life span of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.
Bed bugs in Ontario can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions. Below 16.1 °C (61.0 °F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at −10 °C (14 °F), but will die after 15 minutes of exposure to −32 °C (−26 °F). They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35–40 °C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.
The thermal death point for C. lectularius is high: 45 °C (113 °F), and all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46 °C (115 °F).Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours .
Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air. Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.
Their bites are not usually noticed at the time. They develop slowly to low itchy welts that may take weeks to go away. They prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck and arms of a sleeping individual. The neck and jaw line are particularly favored places to feed.
Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for as long as a year without feeding, under typically warm conditions they will try to feed at five to ten day intervals and adults can survive for about five months without food. Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.
At the 57th Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.
DNA from human blood meals from bed bugs can be recovered for up to 90 days, which may allow them to be used for forensic purposes for identifying on whom the bed bugs have been feeding.
Bedbug feeding physiology:
A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with what is called a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or "beak". This is a unit composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin
The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.
The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood. In all, the insect may have spent less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and will not attempt to feed again until it has either completed a molt or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.
All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination. Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination Instead, the male pierces the female's abdomen with his hypodermic genitalia and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege, a component of the spermalege, a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries
Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce the latter in the abdomen. This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males will mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex. The "bed bug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males who attempt to mate with them.
C. lectularius and C. hemipterus will mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, C. hemipterus × lectularius Life stages
Bed bugs have six life stages (five immature nymph stages and a final sexually mature adult stage). They will shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer shells which are clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults and must take a blood meal in order to complete each molt.
Each of the immature stages lasts approximately a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete life cycle can be completed in as little as two months (which is actually rather long compared to other ectoparasites— fleas, for example, can complete a cycle in as little as three weeks). Fertilized females with enough food will lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their life spans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.
Dwellings can become infested with bed bugs in a variety of ways, such as:
Bed bugs are elusive and usually nocturnal (peak activity usually occurs around 5:00 or 6:00 a.m.), which can make noticing them difficult. They often lodge in dark crevices, and the tiny adhesive eggs can be nestled by the hundreds in fabric seams. Aside from bite symptoms, signs include fecal spots (small dark sand-like droppings that occur in patches around and especially beneath nests), blood smears on sheets (fecal spots that are re-wetted will smear like fresh blood), and the presence of their empty molted exoskeletons.
Although bed bugs can be found singly, they tend to congregate once established. Although they are strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their life cycles physically attached to their hosts. Once feeding is complete, a bed bug will relocate to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggs which entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect will return after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, amongst bedside clutter, even inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds,or rodents.
Bed bugs can be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries. Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate of 97.5%, based upon tests conducted under controlled conditions by researchers.The success rates in these tests may not reflect real-world success rates of pest companies' dogs, operating with many more variables in the field.
Dog detection can often occur in minutes where a pest control practitioner might need an hour. In the United States, about 100 dogs are used to find bed bugs as of mid-2009. A few companies are experimenting with high speed gas chromatography to detect bed bugs.
Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of pesticide and nonpesticide approaches.Pesticides that have historically been found to be effective include: pyrethroids, dichlorvos and malathion Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time and negative health effectsfrom their use are of concern.
Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat treating or wrapping mattresses, have been recommended. A combination of heat and drying treatments have been found to be most effective. For public health reasons, individuals are encouraged to call a professional pest control service to eradicate bed bugs in a home, rather than attempting to do it, themselves, particularly if they live in a multi-family building
Although occasionally applied as a safe indoor pesticide treatment for other insects, boric acid is ineffectual against bed bugs because bed bugs do not groom
Natural enemies of bed bugs include the masked hunter insect (also known as "masked bed bug hunter") cockroaches, ants, spiders (particularly Thanatus flavidus), mites and centipedes. The Pharaoh ant's (Monomorium pharaonis) venom is lethal to bed bugs. Biological pest control is not very practical for eliminating bed bugs from human dwellings.
Bed Bugs - EnviroTech Pest Control has a highly successful Bed Bug Program in Orangeville Ontario. Our program will prevent Bed Bugs from entering your home, giving you a pest free environment. For more videos on Pest Control, be sure to follow EnviroTech Pest Control on YouTube.
Bed Bugs are persistent. Eradicating, exterminating or just killing infestations often requires a professional.
Bed Bugs can hide in extremely small cracks and crevices making it difficult to locate breeding sites they are rarely seen in the daylight. They emerge from their hiding spots at low light or at night to feed.
Bed Bugs can live a year or longer without a (Blood) meal and thus they stay in their hiding places.
Bed Bugs can travel long distances and survive in suitcases, clothing, vehicles, aircraft, cruise ships, make up bags, shaving kits, cell phones and other modes of transportation.
Bed Bugs can live in almost any crevice or protected location. They will almost always stay close to a food source (Blood) meal but can rapidly spread through a multiple residence building, hotel, dorms, motels or other accommodations. The most common place to find them is IN YOUR BED. Bed Bugs often hide within SEAMS, TUFFS and crevices of the BED FRAME box spring and mattress, headboard or night tables.
BED BUG IDENTIFICATION AND LIFE CYCLE:
LENGTH........ADULTS UP TO 4.5 MM
OTHER FEATURES.....NYMPHS AND ADULTS ARE WINGLESS,ADULTS POSSESS VESTIGIAL WING PADS.
Under normal conditions, mature bed bugs may live four months to a year or more. After mating and having a blood meal, the female deposits from 10-50 eggs in irregular masses, until 200 or more have been laid. There are records of a single female laying as many as 500 eggs. The whitish eggs are glued to surfaces in areas where the female hides. During warm periods hatching occurs within 6-10 days. Newly hatched nymphs undergo 5 molts, usually feeding on the host's blood once between moults.
Generally...there are 3 to 4 generations a year.
BED BUG SERVICES, TREATMENTS AND PREVENTION.
SOME SERVICES INCLUDE...
BED BUG PREPARATION SERVICE: We have trained staff to help you prepare or completely prepare your dwelling before we arive saving you time and money.
HOTEL & MOTEL: Staff Training, we have a bed bug expert on staff to train your employee's to do in house bed bug inspection, detection, identification and prevention. This will keep you to be one step ahead.
SLEEPING WITH BED BUGS: Mattress, Crib, Pillow and Box Spring Covers.
Lets face it nobody wants to share their sleeping quarters with bed bugs. We carry a full line of bed bug and dust mite mattress covers, baby crib, box spring and pillow encasements. Go to www.TheBugStore.ca/ecommerce ,we have a wide range of bed bug products.
BED BUG TREATMENT: There are many differant methods to control or exterminate bed bugs, heat, cryonite and insecticides all of them are effective but some are very costly.
We at EnviroTech Pest Control believe that the new products in todays market place are far safer than those of years past due to tough guide lines from Health Canada. The use of insecticides are the most economical way to exterminate bed bugs. They are 100% safe and 100% successful.
By using only the best and safest pest control products available and state of the art application techniques, we ensure the Health and Safety of our customers under the careful guidance of strict Health Canada guidelines.
EnviroTech Pest Control is a full service pest control company with guaranteed results. We can custom tailor a program to suit your needs for home, farm, cottage, condominium, commercial and estate locations.
There are a several Pest Control Programs that we offer. Regardless of which program you choose, you should consider them to be a wise investment in safeguarding both your family and your property. These pest control services are available for businesses, cottages, estates, farms, homes, marinas and many more.
"Prompt and reliable service is what I got from you at my cottage....my wife got a bug free summer...she is happy (don't have to tell you how that makes me feel). Thanks again, and pencil me in for this year." ~ Steve Eric
"Service is prompt, very professional and the results are great!! I always appreciate being able to trust a company, their employees and their work" ~ Kathleen
"Coming from the city some three years ago the Cluster Flies were a disgusting surprise. A neighbour suggested EnviroTech. Within 48 hours our crisis was solved (also some added damage by squirrels was identified which prevented a major problem). Since the first visit, our annual service has expanded to control wasps and mice in the pool area. EnviroTech's work is highly recommended." ~Roy Vincent
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